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|Operation Redemptive Glory
Operación Redentora Gloria (es)
Image released by the Mexican Defense Ministry depicting the ruins of a building in Guatemala City.
Mexican-occupied Central America
|Commanders and leaders|
| Pablo Hildago de Veracruz|
Juan Hector Barroz
| Otto Pérez Molina (POW)
Juan Orlando Hernández (POW)
Salvador Sánchez Cerén¤
|1,000,000 active military personnel|
890,000 paramilitary personnel
|580,000 active military personnel
350~ special forces personnel
16 logistics aircraft
22 logistics vessels
|Casualties and losses|
|1,000–5,000 personnel dead|
32 tanks destroyed
2 tanks captured
17 aircraft downed
|5,000–10,000 personnel dead
50 tanks destroyed
25 tanks captured
27 aircraft downed
5,000–20,000 killed, injured, or missing
$2.5 trillion+ in damages
|°Invaded by Mexican and allied forces
The rationale provided by the Mexican government concerning its operations was to "protect Mexican integrity and sovereignty" and the "resolute desire of the Central American people". Up until recent years, Mexico was a isolated pariah state that kept much of its operations on low-profile. Following the turn of the 21st century, domestically, Mexico eased its authoritarian control over its people while internationally, it facilitated blossoming relations with other powers, particularly Russia and China. At the same time, Mexico reintroduced radical nationalist ideas including retaking the former Mexican territories of the Baja California peninsula and Sonoran region (see Baja California crisis) as well as the Central American states.
Mexico's invasions have received widespread international condemnation. After Mexico's initial invasion of Guatemala, foreign powers including the United States and Sierra threatened to place sanctions on the invader if it did not remove its troops within 48 hours. Following the Mexican government's failure to abide, the reactionary states sought assistance from the international community via the League of Nations. On January 6, 2015, the League of Nations Security Council passed Resolution 2188 approving military intervention in Central America.
Historically, the entire region of Central America was part of Mexico. Having achieved independence from Spain, the First Mexican Empire inherited the vast majority of territory, including parts of Central America, from the former Viceroyalty of New Spain. The Captaincy General of Guatemala declared independence from Spain and joined the Mexican Empire in 1821 but it and the rest of Central America seceded from Mexico two years later following the abdication of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. With the Empire dissolved, the Central American states formed the Federal Republic of Central America which eventually balkanized into the modern-day states.
In 1925, Mexico, after years of political instability and turmoil, underwent a bloody political revolution that saw the rise and victory of the Red Shirts, a radical fascist paramilitary organization. The Mexican Social Republic was proclaimed and promoted extreme Mexican nationalism that included the assertion of "indisputable" sovereignty over the Central American region. For nearly 80 years after the creation of the fascist regime, this assertion was dormant and not actively considered by officials.
Following the ascension of the new Generalissimo Pablo Hildago de Veracruz in 2003, De Veracruz revived various tenets of Mexican nationalism including the claim that Central America, the Baja California peninsula, and Sonoran regions were inherently Mexican land. Mexico opened up to the world with an aggressive foreign policy and frequently confronted countries, especially Sierra, over territorial disputes. In October 2014, Mexico finally gave substance to its claims by launching a missile strike in the Sierran city of La Paz in disputed Baja California territory. The attack left dozens dead and sparked the Baja California crisis wherein Mexican and Sierran forces faced off over the Gulf of California almost daily in an increasingly hostile and tense environment.
In respect to Central America, Mexico made no direct confrontation towards its neighbors although frequently criticized incumbent Central American governments and pressed the claim that the states' historic secession from Mexico was illegal. Dismissing the fact that the region remained only part of Mexico for a little more than two years, the government asserted that the dissolution of the empire did not warrant the Mexican nation's "loss" of land. The Mexican government attested that Mexico's inheritance from Spain meant all lands from the Viceroyalty of New Spain which included Central America. Inadvertently, this also implied Mexico claimed sovereignty over all of Sierra (it only actively claims the Sierran territories of the Los Pacíficos), parts of the United States, Lan Na, the islands of the former Spanish East Indies, the island of Hispanola, and Cuba although all of these claims have never been asserted (at least officially).
Invasion of Guatemala
New Year's Invasions
Diplomatic efforts and reactions
- Westland: Chancellor Oska Stärk released a statement regarding the conflict on the 6th January, condemning the actions of the "vicious" and "aggressive" Mexican government, and has gone as far to personally denounce Mexican Generalissimo, Pablo Hidalgo de Veracruz. He also stated that Westland will dispatch humanitarian aid to the affected Central American countries, stating that "the welfare of the people is paramount in this conflict."