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First Manchu-Korean War
Part of the Cold War
Korean War bombing Wonsan.jpg
Date 28th June 1950 – 30th July 1953
Location Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, Liaodong Peninsula
Result Status quo ante bellum
  • Manchu invasion of Korea repelled
  • League of Nations invasion of Manchuria repelled
  • Dismantlement of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Manchu-Korean Armistice agreement
Belligerents
Flag of the United Nations.svg LN Command
Flag of South Korea.png Korea
Flag of the United States.svg United States
Flag of Britain.svg Britain
Communist Manchuria flag.png Manchuria
Flag of North Korea.png Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Flag of the People's Republic of China.png China
Flag of USSR.png Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Flag of South Korea.png Yi Un
Flag of South Korea.png Syngman Rhee
Flag of South Korea.png Chung Il-kwon
Flag of South Korea.pngPaik Sun-yup
Flag of the United Nations.svg Flag of the United States.png Douglas MacArthur
Flag of the United States.png Harry S. Truman
Flag of the United States.png Dwight Eisenhower
Flag of Britain.png Clement Atlee
Communist Manchuria flag.png Xu Xiaobao
Communist Manchuria flag.png Qian Yiu-tong
Flag of North Korea.png Kim Il-Sung
Flag of North Korea.png Pak Hon-yong
Flag of the People's Republic of China.png Mao Zedong
Flag of the People's Republic of China.png Peng Dehuai
Flag of USSR.png Joseph Stalin
Flag of USSR.png Nikita Khrushchev
Strength
Flag of South Korea.png 702,902
Flag of the United States.png 326,863
Flag of Britain.png 14,198
Communist Manchuria flag.png 978,120
Flag of North Korea.png 166,600
Flag of the People's Republic of China.png 1,350,000
Flag of USSR.png 26,000
Casualties and losses
178,426 dead and 32,925 missing 567,283–950,282 dead

The First Manchu-Korean War was a war between Korea and Manchuria which lasted from the 28th June 1950 to the 30th July 1953. The war saw Korea supported by a League of Nations coalition force led by the United States and Britain and Manchuria by the Soviet Union and China, being caused partly by the increasing tensions brought about by the Cold War.

The war was initiated following US military withdrawal from Korea which had been occupied by American troops since the end of World War Two. Following communist victory in the Chinese Civil War the Manchu government became increasingly paranoid that the Soviet Union would allow China to annexe Manchuria. To affirm regional hegemony Manchuria invaded Korea in June 1950 which had faced communist insurgencies since 1945 with Manchuria quickly overrunning the north of the country. A puppet regime headed by Kim Il-Sung was installed and based around the city of Pyongyang. This caused the LN to pass a decree that saw American and British troops led by Douglas MacArthur assist Korean forces. After the first few months of the conflict Korea's capital Seoul was taken by communist forces - however in 1950 an ambitious amphibian based assault was launched on the Liaodong Peninsula which subsequently saw Korean forces over run the Jilin and Liaoning provinces of Manchuria. This prompted China to launch a counter attack on Korean forces forcing them to the 38th parallel. The war continued to be fought mainly around Pyongyang - however by 1953 Manchu forces had been pushed back to the Manchu-Korean boarder. In July 1953 Korea and Manchuria officially signed an armistice agreement that saw the Korean communist regime dissolved.

The conflict was notable for exacerbating East-West relations in Asia. It saw the US and Britain participate in the first major conflict since the end of WWII as well as establish Korea as a firm ally to the west. China also was able to affirm its status as a regional power, occupying Manchuria for several years following the war.

Background

Course of the war

Invasion of Korea

Communist Korea

League of Nations response

Occupation of Seoul

Liaodong Offensive

Chinese counteroffensive

Pyongyang campaign

Armistice

Dissolution of communist Korea

Aftermath

Second Manchu-Korean War

Legacy

Impact on Korean politics

See also

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