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The Government of Surea is divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive and judicial branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. Local governments are semi-autonomous, and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels.

The Surean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Surea. This document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1949 (for details, see History of Surea). However, it has retained many broad characteristics; with the exception of the short-lived Third Republic of Surea, the country has always had a presidential system with a relatively independent chief executive.

As with most stable three-branch systems, a careful system of checks and balances is in place. For instance, the judges of the Constitutional Court are partially appointed by the executive, and partially by the legislature. Likewise, when a resolution of impeachment is passed by the legislature, it is sent to the judiciary for a final decision.

Executive branch[]

The executive branch reports to the National Assembly and is headed by the President. The President is elected directly by the people, and is the only elected member of the national executive. He must be a member of the National Assembly and a civilian. The Cabinet, which he organizes, must also be civilian. The Constitution states that the majority of the Cabinet must be elected members of the National Assembly, the precise wording leaving an opportunity to appoint non-elected officials. The President serves for one five-year term; additional terms are not permitted. The president is head of government, head of state, and commander in chief of the Surean armed forces. The President is vested with the power to declare war, and can also propose legislation to the National Assembly. He can also declare a state of emergency or martial law, subject to the Assembly's subsequent approval. However, the president does not have the power to dissolve the National Assembly. This safeguard reflects the experience of totalitarian governments under the First and Third Republics.

In the event that they are suspected of serious wrongdoing, the President and cabinet-level officials are subject to impeachment by the National Assembly. Such cases are decided by the Constitutional Court.

The President is assisted in his duties by the Prime Minister of Surea. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by the National Assembly. In the event that the president is unable to fulfil his duties, the Prime Minister takes control of the state. There are no limits on who can fill the position. The Prime Minister has the power to recommend the appointment or dismissal of cabinet ministers.

State Council[]

The State Council is made up of the President, Prime Minister, and cabinet-level ministers. These ministers represent the 6 ministries of the Surean government. The Council is charged with deliberating on major policy decisions; its meetings are chaired by the President and officiated by the Prime Minister. Although the Council has no power to make final decisions, the Constitution requires that certain matters be brought to it before final decisions are made. These include bestowals of state honors, drafts of constitutional amendments, declarations of war, budget proposals, government restructurings, and emergency orders.

Ministries[]

The head of each ministry is appointed by the President. The ministers report to the Prime Minister. Surea adopted the ancient 6 ministry method but with a slightly change to fit in to the modern world.

  • Ministry of Knowledge (文部)
  • Ministry of Personnel (吏部)
  • Ministry of Finance (戶部)
  • Ministry of Defence (防部)
  • Ministry of Industries (工部)
  • Ministry of Justice (法部)

Each ministry is run by 1 Minister (尚書), 2 Deputy Minister (左尚書,右尚書), 2 Secretary (郎中), and 2 Assistant Secretary (員外郎).

Independence agencies[]

Many of these agencies are managed by intermediate agencies; others report directly to the Prime Minister or to the President.

Legislative branch[]

At the national level, the legislative branch consists of the National Assembly of Surea. This is a unicameral legislature; it consists of a single large assembly. Most of its 250 members are elected from single-member constituencies; however, 50 are elected through proportional representation. The members of the National Assembly serve for four years; in the event that a member is unable to complete his or her term, a by-election is held. The National Assembly is charged with deliberating and passing legislation, auditing the budget and administrative procedures, ratifying treaties, and approving state appointments. In addition, it has the power to impeach or recommend the removal of high officials.

The Assembly forms 15 standing committees to deliberate matters of detailed policy. For the most part, these coincide with the ministries of the executive branch.

Bills pass through these committees before they reach the floor. However, before they reach committee, they must already have gained the support of at least 25 members, unless they have been introduced by the President. To secure final passage, a bill must receive a majority of those present; a tie vote is not sufficient. After passage, bills are sent to the President for approval; they must be approved within 15 days.

Each year, the budget bill is submitted to the National Assembly by the executive. By law, it must be submitted at least 90 days before the start of the fiscal year, and the final version must be approved at least 30 days before the start of the fiscal year. The Assembly is also responsible for auditing accounts of past expenditures, which must be submitted at least 120 days before the start of the fiscal year.

Sessions of the Assembly may be either regular (once a year, for no more than 100 days) or extraordinary (by request of the President or a caucus, no more than 30 days). These sessions are open-door by default, but can be closed to the public by majority vote or by decree of the Speaker. In order for laws to be passed in any session, a quorum of half the members must be present.

Currently, all four political parties of Surea are represented in the National Assembly.

Judicial branch[]

The judicial branch is independent of the other two and is headed by the Constitutional Court. This system was newly established in the Fifth Republic, to help guard against the excesses shown by past regimes. The Constitutional Court consists of nine justices. Of these, three are recommended by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, three by the National Assembly, and three by the President; however, all must be appointed by the president. The President of the Constitutional Court is appointed by the national president, subject to the approval of the National Assembly. The members of the court serve for six-year renewable terms, and cannot be older than 65 (except for the President of the court, who may be as old as 70).

The Constitutional Court is charged purely with constitutional review and with deciding cases of impeachment. Other judicial matters are overseen by the Supreme Court. This is the final court of appeal for all cases in Surean law. The Supreme Court, seated in Konggei, consists of fifteen Justices, including one Chief Justice. The Justices must be at least 40 years old, and have at least 15 years of experience practicing law. They serve for six-year terms; the Chief Justice cannot be reappointed, but the other justices can.

Below the Supreme Court come appellate courts, stationed in five of the country's major cities. Appellate courts typically consist of a panel of three judges. Below these are prefectural courts, which exist in most of the large cities of Surea. Below these are branch and municipal courts, positioned all over the country and limited to small claims and petty offenses. Specialized courts also exist for family, administrative, and patent cases.

All courts are under the jurisdiction of the national judiciary; independent local courts are not permitted. Judges through out the system are required to have passed a rigorous training system including a two-year program and two-year apprenticeship. All judicial training is provided through the Judicial Research and Training Institute, and is limited to those who have already passed the National Judicial Examination. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has the power over all court administration, and can recommend court-related legislation to the National Assembly.

See also[]

  • Politics of Surea
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