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- This country is part of the Altverse universe
|Federal Republic of Iberia|
República Federal de Iberia (es)
Iberia highlighted within Europe
|Official languages||Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Basque|
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Ana Fernández Ruiz|
• Vice President
|Josep Ferrer Castell|
|Chamber of Senators|
|Chamber of Deputies|
|568,828 km2 (219,626 sq mi)|
• 2015 estimate
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||IBR|
Iberia, officially the Federal Republic of Iberia (Spanish: República de Iberia) is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Iberia's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north by France and Andorra, and to the west and northwest by the Atlantic Ocean. Iberia's territory also includes the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, the Azores and Madeira.
The Iberian Peninsula was first settled by humans approximately 35,000 years ago, with distinct Iberian cultures quickly developing. The peninsula came under control of the Romans around 200BCE, during which it was known as Hispania. Throughout the Middle Ages, Iberia was occupied by Germanic tribes, and later by the Moors. In the 15th century, Spain was unified, uniting the majority of Iberia under one crown. In this period, both Spain and Portugal established large colonial empires, leaving a cultural and linguistic legacy across the globe. The two countries continued as stable kingdoms until the early 20th century, when a right-wing, Catholic regime was established, exercising control over the entirety of Iberia. In 1974, after the death of Iberia's dictator, Francisco Franco, a peaceful coup d'etat took place, putting an end to several decades of totalitarian rule. Democracy was restored under a provisional government, which maintained peace and democracy until elections could be held. The first democratic elections took place in 1976, and elected a Socialist government. This new government established a federal system within Iberia, devolving authorities to individual states, many of which had had their languages and cultures repressed under Franco's dictatorship. Despite this, Portuguese and Catalan nationalism remain divisive issues within Iberian society and politics.
Iberia came into being in 1939, when Spain and Portugal were united under the rule of Francisco Franco's fascist regime. Spain's monarchy had become weak, due to unpopularity and instability, caused by ideological tensions and the Great Depression. Once the monarchy had been overthrown, power swayed between Franco's far-right faction, and various socialist and liberal groups. After a brutal civil war, Franco was able to assert his power. This civil war saw a clash of ideologies, and a struggle for power between Franco's nationalists, and many left-wing republican groups. During this civil war, the popularity of Franco's right-wing regime, supported by many Spanish Catholics, spread to Portugal. Portugal's republican government was unstable, with much of Portugal's population seeking the stable leadership that they felt Franco's regime would bring. By 1939, Franco's nationalists had won the Civil War, uniting the entirety of the Iberian Peninsula under a far-right regime. The Francoist regime carried out social reforms across the country, promoting the role of the Catholic Church, and discouraging regional languages and cultures, particularly in Portugal and Catalonia.
Transition to democracy
Iberia comprises of twenty-one federal states, which are mostly autonomous in their governance. Each state is controlled by its own legislature, lead by the state's President. The Presidents also hold executive power in their respective states.
|Castile and Leon||Valladolid||2,540,251|
Government and politics
Iberia is a presidential constitutional republic, with a President serving as the head of state and government. The incumbent President is Ana Fernández Ruiz of the Partido Socialista. Legislative power is vested in Iberia's bicameral parliament, the Congress. The upper house of the Congress is the Chamber of Senators, whilst the lower house is the Chamber of Deputies. Executive power is vested in the President, and the Council of Ministers (Iberia), which acts as Iberia's cabinet.
Elections to the Congress take place every four years, with the the 550 congressional deputies being chosen through popular vote on block lists by proportional representation. The composition of the Chamber of Senators is determined in a similar way, with the the 200 senators also being elected to four year terms.
Iberia has a federal system of governance, with most powers being devolved to the twenty-one states. Each state has its own parliament and executive branch, which take responsibility for issues such as education, healthcare and welfare. Foreign policy and defence, meanwhile, are controlled by the federal government.
The two dominant political parties in Iberia are the Partido Socialista (Socialist Party) and the Alianza Popular (People's Alliance). The Socialists follow a pragmatic, centre-left platform, whilst Alianza Popular bases its platform on an ideology of Christian democracy and liberal conservatism. Smaller political parties also exist at the federal level, including the centrist Ciudadanos (Citizens Party), the right-wing populist Partido Popular por la Democracia (People's Party for Democracy) and the left-wing Bloque Izquierda (Left Bloc). Meanwhile, several nationalist parties exist in Portugal, Catalonia and the Basque Country, advocating for further autonomy, or even independence for their respective states. Examples of these parties include the centre-leftist Futur Català (Catalan Future), the socialist Euskal Aliantza Sozialista (Basque Socialist Alliance) and the centrist Partido Nacional Português (Portuguese National Party). As a result of the support these parties enjoy, Portuguese, Catalan and Basque nationalism remain contentious topics in Iberian politics.
Since its current constitution was introduced in 1976, Iberia has been regarded as one of the most liberal countries in Europe in terms of its social policy. For example, civil unions for same-sex couples were first introduced in 1992, with legislation for full marriage equality passing in 2005. Iberia is also renowned for its liberal drugs policy, particularly with regard to marijuana.