Royal Union Army
KU Monogram HAER
Coat of Arms of Royal Union Army.
Founded 1951
Country Kalmar Union
Size 309,000 Professional men and women
Part of Forsvaret
KoHAE Lt. General Erik Sköld
Frederik II

Kongelige Hæren av Kalmarunionen (Royal Army of Kalmar Union), often abbreviated as Hæren, established in 1951, is the heir of the ancient armies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, dating back to 1509. It is the branch of Forsvaret responsible for land-based military operations and is the largest branch of the armed forces. From 2001, the Hæren has undergone a massive transformation of structures, equipment and training methods, abandoning its traditional role of anti-invasion defence, and instead focusing on worldwide out of area operations.

Hæren currently has a professional strength of 309,000, and approximately 50,000 of the soldiers are foreigners.


Since the formation of the Union, the military has been undergoing a process of integration and modernization not only in equipment but also in their structure and organization. In this process the Hæren has now a simple and effective organization that has an impact on improved effectiveness.

The major operational command is Hærens Hovedkvarter, HaeHV (Army Headquarters). It is located in Oslo and it is split into divisions and subordinate units ranging from brigades to sections. Corps are made up of two or more divisions, but are now unlikely to be deployed as a purely national formation due to the size of the 'Hæren.

There are four subordinated headquarters:

  • Hærens Hovedkvarter Skandinavia, HaeHV-SK, (Headquarters Skandinavia).
  • Hærens Hovedkvarter ArktiskArmy, HaeHV-AR, (Headquarters Artic).
  • Hærens Reaksjonsstyrke Hovedkvarter, HaeHV-RS, (Reaction Force Headquarters).

The standard operational units are structured as follows, although various units can have their own structure, conventions, names and sizes.

Type of Unit Symbol Contains Soldiers Commanded by
Division XX 3 - 4 Brigades + aux. Regiments 15120 - 20160 Major General
Brigade X 2 Regiments 5040 Brigade General
Regiment III 3 Battalions 2520 Colonel
Battalion II 5 Companies 840 Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel
Company I 3 Platoons 168 Major or Captain
Platoon +++ 4 Sections 56 Lieutenant or 2nd Lieutenant
Section ++ 2 Squads 14 Sergeant Major or Sergeant
Squad + Individuals 7 Sergeant or Corporal


Given its dependence on Regional Army HQs:

Hærens Hovedkvarter Skandinavia, HaeHV-SK, Oslo

1st Infantry Division

Headquarters: (INF1-HQ ) Oslo

2nd Armoured Division

Headquarters: (ARM2-HQ) Oslo

3rd Infantry Division

Headquarters (INF3-HQ): Sundsvall

5th Armoured Division

Headquarters: (ARM5-HQ) Haderslev

1. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

2. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

3. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

4. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

Hærens Hovedkvarter ArktiskArmy, HaeHV-AR, Bodø

4th Infantry Division

Headquarters (INF4-HQ): Keflavik

6th Infantry Division

Headquarters: (INF6-HQ ) Bodø

5. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

6. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

Hærens Reaksjonsstyrke Hovedkvarter, HaeHV-RS, Goteborg

7th Infantry Division

Headquarters: (INF7-HQ ) Goteborg

8th Armoured Division

Headquarters: (ARM8-HQ) Kristiansand

9th Infantry Division

Headquarters (ARM9-HQ): Arhus

7. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

8. Kongelige Artilleriregiment

Integrated infantry equipment

Clothing and armour

Basic combat clothing has a full cut allowing free movement. Bellows pockets provide ample carrying capacity. The material (fabric) offers good mechanical properties but still allows good air permeability.

The fibres (aramid/viscose FR) are flame- and wash-resistant.

The flak jacket accommodates:

  • Flexible ballistic protection
  • Hard ballistic protection
  • Electronic jacket
  • Load-bearing structure.

The electronic jacket integrates the electronics (computer unit, manager unit, radio, man-machine interface, GPS, cables and connector), flexible water bottle, Bofors Ak 5C magazines and grenades, and optimises weight distribution on the soldier.

The equipment is autonomous and can be used alone. The NRBC combat clothing is similar to permanent combat clothing. It is designed to allow combat phases to be carried out with the same efficiency as that achieved with conventional combat clothing.


The Royal Union Army have selected the Kermel V50 and VMC40 fabrics to equip its troops.

Portable electronic platform (PEP)

The PEP lies at the heart of the infantry combat system. Designed to utilise all the electronic resources found on the electronic jacket (computer, energy manager, peripheral equipment interfaces, user interfaces), The system is built around a USB 5.0. digital data bus. This choice of open broadband digital data bus and extensive connectivity gives the portable electronic platform, and hence the system, strong interoperability.

Individual energy sources

Peripheral equipment can be connected to the physical connection ports situated at the front of the battery units. Power sources will be made of two fuel cells, provided partially by Natech group.


Individual weapons

Crew weapons

BOFORS AK 5C remain the infantryman’s basic weapon. FN Minimi and other weapons can accommodate a telescopic night sight with no need for changes.

BOFORS AK 5C accommodates a man-machine interface, a second grip and a telescopic sight. The sight is equipped with a day imager and a night imager (the infantryman’s sight will be light intensifying, and one soldier per squad will have a thermal sight: uncooled IR), a restitution eyepiece, a clear sight for instinctive shooting. The sight has an integrated video camera that transmits received images to the system. A wire connection links the weapon to the system.

TheFN Minimi sight uses similar technology to the BOFORS AK 5C IR sight. The sight supports man-machine interfaces and integrates resources for radio communication with the rest of the Félin system.

Precision rifle sight is based on the use of uncooled infrared sensors, combined with adapted magnifying optics. It also includes radio communication resources.


The helmet is composed of three components: head protection, communication headset and optronic equipment. The ballistic shell optimises protection and load-bearing ergonomics (weight distribution). It can accommodate various items required for the mission (facial protection screens) and its shape is compatible with all firing positions of the weapons used.

A lightweight, integrated protective shield protects the infantryman from various threats (wind, rain, dust, UV). Non-linear earplugs afford auditory protection. The NBC mask can be equipped with a filter cartridge or linked to the ventilation powerpack. A tube built into the NBC mask can be used to take in liquids (water, food).

The communication headset is linked to the radio. It holds the microphone and earpiece and works by bone vibrations (bone conduction transducer). It works independently from the helmet and can therefore remain in operation when the helmet is removed.

The optronic equipment is composed of mission interface overshell integrating the optronics, head camera (EBCMOS light intensification technology), image display units (OLED technology) allowing data and icons transmitted on the bus system to be displayed, images and video coming from the weapon or the head camera. The image display unit is fixed to the helmet: its screen can be brought into line with infantryman's eye. When not in use, it can be folded away so as not to hinder the soldier.

Information network

The information network allows information to be shared throughout the infantry section. Each radio can subscribe to two networks simultaneously. This offers the squad leader some flexibility in organising communication networks in his section. Each network has an audio conference channel, with priority given to the squad leader, an alert channel from the infantryman to his leader, and a data transmission channel. Voice and data transmission is based on tried and tested satellite communication. Each sub-network works from a base carried by the squad leader. As information network sets are all identical, a soldier can replace his commander if necessary by configuring his set as base. The radio is configured by the soldier computer, thereby limiting the number of control buttons needed on the set.

Dismounted soldier’s Terminal Information System (TIS)

The TIS is made up of software supported by the computer, a man-machine interface and a communication interface box connected to a PR4G VS4 portable radio set.

Multipurpose infrared binoculars

Based on uncooled IR technology.

Transport/Carrying Case

The weapon and subsidiary systems are transported and stored in a Storm iM3220 plastic moulded carry case with foam cut-outs designed for each part.

Collective recharging unit (MRC)

Used to recharge the soldiers’ individual batteries. It uses hydrogen fuel cells manufactured by Natech.

Vehicle kits

Kits have a common structure and are designed for easy integration into modern vehicles, where they provide the power supply for the mounted soldiers’ systems.


Combat vehicles

Vehicle Type Place of origin Status Units (Ordered)
Leopard 2A4 MBT Germany Operative 340
Leopard 2A5 MBT Germany Operative 320
Future MBT MBT Selection
CV90 IFV Kalmar Union Operative 1200 (400)
M113A3 APC USA Retired 2014 1100
Pbv302 APC Kalmar Union Retired 2014 600
MT-LB APC Soviet Union Retired 2011 440
Sisu XA APC Kalmar Union Operative 950
MOWAG Piranha V APC Switzerland Operative 250 (300)
Future Tracked APC APC Selection
Future Wheeled APC APC Selection
Future Light APC APC Selection

General purpose vehicles

Vehicle Type Place of origin Status Units (Ordered)
Scania Defence Trucks Diverse Trucks Kalmar Union
Land Rover Wolf 4WD Vehicle UK Operative 3500
URO Vamtac 4WD Vehicle Spain Operative 2000
RG-31 Nyala 4WD Vehicle South Africa Operative 400
Bv206S Articulated AT Carrier Kalmar Union Operative 400
Volvo XC90 SUV Kalmar Union Operative 120
Volvo XC70 SUV Kalmar Union Operative 80


Vehicle Type Place of origin Status Units (Ordered)
Bofors L/70 AA Kalmar Union Operative 1000
NASAMS AA Kalmar Union Operative 40
BAMSE AA Kalmar Union Operative 200
ASRAD-R AA Kalmar Union Operative 300
M109 A3GN SH USA Operative 200
ARCHER Artillery System SA Kalmar Union Operative 220
Haubits FH77 H Kalmar Union Operative 440
OTO Melara Mod 56 H(Airmobile) Italy Operative 60
BvS20AS SH Kalmar Union Operative 400
BM-30 Smerch SH Soviet Russia Operative 120


Vehicle Type Place of origin Status Units (Ordered)
Bell 412 Helicopter Canada Operative 56
Westland Lynx Helicopter UK Operative 132
Super Puma Helicopter France Operative 62
Cougar Helicopter France Operative 84
Tiger Atack Helic. France Operative 80
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