|— city and metropolitan borough —|
|Motto: "Cum labore, victoriae"|
|Named for||Manchester, England|
|Administrative center||New Manchester Town Hall, St. Michael's Square|
|- Type||New Manchester Metropolitan Council|
|- Lord Mayor||Tom Farron|
|- MPs||14 Members of Parliament|
|Elevation||476.5 m (1,563.3 ft)|
|- Est. (2015)||2,480,273|
|- Demonym||New Mancunian|
|Time zone||New Anglian Standard Time (UTC-1)|
|- Summer (DST)||New Anglian Daylight Time (UTC0)|
New Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Calderside, New Anglia, with a population of 2,338,517 in 2013, making it the largest city in New Anglia. New Manchester is the center of the largest urban area in New Anglia, Greater New Manchester, with a population of 11,692,585. New Manchester is located along the Calder River with the Eastern Bryns to its south and the Norcalder Plains to the north. The local authority is the New Manchester Metropolitan Council.
New Manchester's origins lie in the original Portuguese settlements on New Anglia beginning in 1456. One of the first settlements on the island, the village known as Porto Seguro, is the first settlement associated with the area that is now known as Calderside. New Manchester was established as the administrative center of the Charter Colony of New Anglia in the 17th century, and was an important port for British trade on the Atlantic between the mainland and the New World.
New Manchester is a diverse, cosmopolitan city, attracting millions of tourists annually. It is a global city, with prominence in the arts, commerce, education, finance, healthcare, media, research and development, sciences, tourism, and transport. It is an international finance centre, supporting the New Anglian economy and global markets with an advanced financial infrastructure and the New Manchester Stock Exchange.
The area that is now Calderside was settled by Portuguese colonists beginning in the mid-1450s. In the years prior, Estevao Sao Daniel's surveying missions had produced detailed maps of the areas inland along the river, then named Rio Duro for the many stone outcroppings along its banks. Several potential sites suitable for settlement were indicated, and one of these, Porto Seguro, was closest to the site of modern day New Manchester. Several of the early brick buildings of the original settlement were restored and preserved as a historical area and park in the city centre. The Portuguese remained the dominant cultural force on the island until 1597, when the Portuguese colonial governor Pedro de Noz capitulated to Admiral Robert Devereux at the Portuguese colonial capital at São Salvação, 7 miles upstream from Porto Seguro.
The earliest colonists in the area built an economy that relied on fishing and agriculture for exports to England. The North Atlantic Company, given charter to develop the northern coast of New Anglia as the New Anglia colony, embarked on a effort led by Robert Middleton to build a modern market town named New Manchester and a local economy built on exporting textiles and minerals extracted from the nearby foothills. Subsequently, the region experienced a population boom, in the hopes of building fortune in the new colony. By the time that naval censuses began around 1660, 17,000 people had settled in New Manchester. An Anglican parish was established in 1675, and a church was built near the center of town.
The New Anglia colony became a crown colony under direct royal administration in 1683, with New Manchester designated as the colony's administrative center, making it the most important town on the island until Lansbury, administrative center of Cymru Newed, became capital of the Dominion of New Anglia in 1875. In 1685, a formal town plan was adopted by the colonial governor, and a law court and administrative buildings were built.
New Manchester lies in the midlands between the Bryns and the North Coastal Plains, approximately 20 miles inland from New Anglia's northern coast. The city center lies between the Rivers Calder and Amway, just south of their confluence. The area that comprises the core area of the city is largely flat, allowing for views of the nearby mountains from highrises in the city. New Manchester's formal boundaries are contiguous with other settlements on all sides, forming a continuous urban area for several miles in each direction from the center.
|Climate data for New Manchester (MediaCentre), 1983–2013|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 16.1|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 7.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 5.0|
|Average low °C (°F)|| 2.7|
|Record low °C (°F)|| −14.6|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)|| 72.3|
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||13.1||9.7||12.3||11.2||10.4||11.1||10.9||12.0||11.1||13.6||14.1||13.5||142.9|
|Average snowy days||9||7||5||2||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||5||30|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87||86||86||85||82||84||86||88||89||89||87||87||86.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||62.5||79.2||128.9||166.0||193.8||202.1||212.2||212.2||167.9||117.8||67.7||51.4||1,661.7|
|Source: Met Bureau|
New Manchester is governed by the New Manchester Metropolitan Council which serves as a unitary authority for the city and also serves as a regional authority for Calderside and Greater New Manchester. New Manchester was chartered as a city early in New Anglia's history, in 1680, following an influx of settlers from mainland Britain in the 1660s and 70s.
As the center of New Anglia's economy and one of the first settlements in the country, New Manchester has uniformly remained the largest city in New Anglia, with a notable exception during World War I, World War II, and the interwar period, when the bureaucracy in Lansbury swelled to meet logistical needs of the war effort. The population of New Manchester peaked just after World War II, in 1948, at 3,521,680, and declined for some time due to urban renewal efforts and reconstruction efforts.
At the time of the 2013 Household Survey, New Manchester's population was estimated to be 2,338,517, an increase of 120,728 (2.6%) from the 2011 Survey. Greater New Manchester, the region surrounding New Manchester, including Calderside and parts of West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, and Tyneset, had a population of 11,692,585 at the 2013 Household Survey, including areas around Goldsborough to the east.
Births in 2013 exceeded deaths by 10,946, contributing to positive population growth. Net migration in 2013 was positive, with about 45,000 immigrants moving to the city.
The city of New Manchester accounts for nearly 25 percent of New Anglia's GDP, generating $645 billion in 2014. The Port of New Manchester, a deepwater port in the Calder Estuary, is New Anglia's main port for cargo exports and imports, and handled 48 million tonnes of cargo in the year ending October 2014. Although manufacturing was a crucial part of New Manchester's economy from the Industrial Revolution, in the postwar years, it has suffered a marked decline in share of the economy as financial services and tourism grew in the second half of the 20th century. Just over 75 percent of Greater New Manchester's population works in the service sector, with the most jobs in the finance sector.
New Manchester is also the home of most major companies headquartered in New Anglia. 65 percent of FTSE New Anglia companies are based in Greater New Manchester. Three-quarters of all Fortune 500 companies have offices in New Manchester. Nearly all of New Anglia's major banks are headquartered in the city.
New Manchester has a growing technology sector, with the largest number of science, research and development, technology, and engeineering companies to be found in the country operating in Greater New Manchester. Many of these companies are based in and around the Stratford Green Science City, which has come to be informally known as the "Silicon Green".
New Manchester is the northern hub of New Anglia's transport network, complemented by Lansbury in the south. Several railway lines converge in New Manchester, terminating at one of the city's terminal stations. The Norcalder and Goldsborough Railway, connecting New Manchester and Goldsborough in the nation's first intercity railway, opened in 1842, and is still used today as part of the North East Main Line. New Manchester is served by four primary mainline railway stations, Elizabeth, serving trains to the west and north east from the city; St Michael, serving trains along the East Coast lines; Essex, serving trains to the south and south west of the city; and Manor Bridges serving high-speed services to the south and south east of the city. The Mid-City Tunnel provides a through connection between Elizabeth, Manor Bridges, and St Michael stations to allow for continuing services to pass through the city centre.
New Manchester is served by three regional airports. Blackwell Airport to the northeast is the busiest airport in New Anglia, and serves as the primary international gateway to the country. It also serves as the primary hub for Anglian Airways. Plans are currently underway for the construction of a fourth terminal at the airport. Stratford New Manchester Airport is located to the southeast of the city and handles large amounts of traffic, primarily domestic and budget flights, with some flights to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Calder Valley Airport to the west, is a smaller airport which primarily handles general aviation, charter flights, and business flights.