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The President of the Republic of Gilana was the Head of State of Gilana from the nation's inception on July 21, 1959 until its transition to an autocracy on January 6, 2008. The position was elected every five years by popular vote.

Roles and reponsibilities[]

Under Gilana's former constitution, the President of Gilana was empowered to sign bills passed by the Parliament into law. A rarely used power was the ability to veto bills. The constitution also vested in the President the authority to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister, appoint and dismiss Parliament members, and dissolve Parliament. However, these powers were usually only exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister, or, in the case of dismissing a Prime Minister, based on the formation of a new government by an opposition party or Parliamentary action dismissing the Prime Minister.

The President was also the official Commander in Chief of the Gilanan Armed Forces, though sweeping powers to command troops were, in practice, delegated to the Prime Minister.

In traditional practice, the powers of the President were largely symbolic, and the true role of the position was to act as a foreign representative of Gilana. The President was tasked with the role of meeting with foreign leaders to discuss world affairs and, if necessary, to negotiate treaties and alliances.

Tradition breakers[]

A few Presidents in Gilanan history did break with tradition:

  • The first President, Christopher Zarban, briefly acted as the head of a transitional government in the run-up to the first national elections in November 1959. He resigned this position when the first Parliament took their seats on January 1, 1960. Although he did lead a government for a little more than four months, he is not generally regarded as the first Prime Minister.
  • The fourth President, James Topper, was the subject of a brief constitutional crisis when he vetoed four bills in two months between October and November, 1975. When all the bills were returned to him with veto-proof majorities in Parliament, Topper agreed to sign them but implied a threat to dismiss Parliament in a note to Parliament. Two members of Parliament introduced articles of impeachment against Topper, which quickly gain increasing support. On November 20, 1975, Topper apologized for his actions in an appearance before Parliament. The articles were withdrawn, but Topper's support in the polls dropped dramatically. He resigned from the Presidency on March 20, 1976.
  • The fifth President, Victor Hubbard, was given sweeping authority by Parliament to assist in the restoration of Gilana's economy following the [[Gilanan Economic Crisis of 1985|Economic Crisis of 1985]. Hubbard was a highly respected and awarded economist before becoming involved with politics.
  • The seventh President, Tobias Yawn, stopped short of suggesting that Parliament vote to dismiss then-Prime Minister Horace Chamberland following the Chamberland Affair in early 2003. Parliament did not end up holding a vote, but Chamberland and most of his party were voted out in that year's general election.
  • The eight and final President, Dymero Invisa held an unusual amount of authority and had an important legislative role during his tenure as President. Unlike Topper, his position as President was never put in jeopardy, presumably because of the onset of the Gilanan-Veracan War of 2005.

Length of term[]

The constitution stated that a Presidential term lasted five years, and that a sitting President may run for re-election an unlimited amount of times.

In the case of the death or resignation of a sitting President, the Parliament would elect one of its own members as acting President until a special election could be held, no more than two months after the vacancy.

The death of President Xavier Yates in 1971 brought up two questions unanswered in the constitution: 1) The maximum amount of time between a death or resignation and the appointment of an Acting President and 2) When does a term end if the special election cannot take place until after the first of January.

Parliament decided that the appointment of an Acting President would take place after a day of national mourning in the case of a death, or immediately in the case of a resignation. Additonally, they decided that to keep start dates as continuous as possible, a the new President's term would end on January 1 as in normal circumstances.

Presidents of Gilana[]

Note: Prior to July 21, 1959, the provinces that make up the present-day Gilana were independent states.

1. Christopher Zarban, July 21, 1959 - January 1, 1965 (Transitional President until January 1, 1960)
2. Kenneth Greco, January 1, 1965 - January 1, 1970
3. Xavier Yates, January 1, 1970 - April 23, 19711
4. James Topper, April 25, 1971 - March 20, 19762 (Acting President until January 1, 1972)
5. Victor Hubbard, March 20, 1976 - January 1, 1987 (Acting President until January 1, 1977)
6. Henry Berton, January 1, 1987 - January 1, 19953
7. Tobias Yawn, January 1, 1995 - January 1, 2005
8. Dymero Invisa, January 1, 2005 - January 6, 20084

Notes:
1. Died in office.
2. Resigned due to constitutional crisis months before.
3. Resigned before his term ended citing declining health, but served until the beginning of the new year.
4. Position abolished upon transition to imperial state.
Note that both Topper and Hubbard were elected as Acting President and then to the Presidency proper in special elections.

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