|Southern Cross Republic|
República do Cruzeiro do Sul
Liberdade sob as estrelas do sul
"Freedom under the southern stars"
Anthem: Pátria Estrelada
The Starry Homeland
Location of the Southern Cross Republic
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Galician • Italian • German|
South Crossic (Adj.)
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Roberto Bispo (N)|
|Júlio Campos (N)|
|Maria Albuquerque (N)|
|May 30, 1500|
|July 26, 1579|
August 29, 1912
|45,252.86 km2 (17,472.23 sq mi) (132nd)|
• Water (%)
• 2013 estimate
• 2010 census
|22.35/km2 (57.9/sq mi) (195th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
|$28.483 billion (119th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
|$21.114 billion (107th)|
• Per capita
Error: Invalid Gini value · 97th
Error: Invalid HDI value · 29th
|Currency||Escudo (E$) (SCE)|
|Time zone||SCT (UTC-2)|
• Summer (DST)
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
|Drives on the||right|
|Calling code||+55 29|
|Patron saint||Saint Anne|
The Southern Cross Republic, also referred to as the SCR (Portuguese: República do Cruzeiro do Sul, the RCS, or Cruzeiro do Sul), is an island nation located in the South Atlantic Ocean there is 662km from the Brazilian coast, and it is the 2nd Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas. It is the 13th by geographical area and 11th most populous South American sovereign state. It shares maritime border with Brazil to the west.
The Southern Cross Republic is a developed country. It is a member of the UN, OAS, and OECD; as well as a founding member of the Mercosul, Unasul, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, and also CPLC.
The names "Southern Cross Archipelago" and "Southern Cross Republic" has origin in the constellation of same name—the Crux constellation, or Southern Cross constellation (Constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul in Portuguese). This name was adopted since the first days of the discovery.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Discovery
- 1.2 Southern Cross Captaincy
- 1.3 Ooccupation and the Foundation of Santana
- 1.4 European Immigration First Wave
- 1.5 Independence and Recognition
- 1.6 The Coimbra's Era
- 1.7 Post-War, the European Immigration Second Wave
- 1.8 The 60s in South America
- 1.9 Petroleum and the Economic Boom
- 1.10 Present Days
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government and Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
Main Article: History of the Southern Cross Republic
The land now called Southern Cross Archipelago, was claimed by Portugal in May 1500—38 days after the discovery of Brazil—, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered an uninhabited land.
Southern Cross Captaincy
Main Article: Southern Cross Captaincy
The Southern Cross Captaincy was one of the subdivisions of Brazil during the colonial period until the arrive of John VI of Portugal, when it had become a state of the United kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Southern Cross.
Ooccupation and the Foundation of Santana
The colonization was effectively begun in 1579, more precisely on July 26, day of Our Lady St. Anne, according the Catholic calendar. It was during the reign of Henry, the Cardinal-King of Portugal (Portuguese: Henrique I, Cardeal-Rei de Portugal) or Henry, the Chaste (Henrique I, o Casto).
European Immigration First Wave
Independence and Recognition
The Coimbra's Era
Post-War, the European Immigration Second Wave
The 60s in South America
Petroleum and the Economic Boom
The Southern Cross Republic is an archipelago with six islands, and it is the 45th by area, with about 45,200 km² (or approximately 17,500 sq mi). It is located in the South Atlantic ocean. It has volcanic origin and it formed during the continental separation there is more than 200 million years ago. It is a rogue piece of the South America.
Its highest point is the Bocanegra volcano (literally: Black mouth), with 1,323.1m (4,340.9 ft) height, located in the Southern Cross Island, in the mountains calls Sierra Central (Serra Central). The lowest point is the Lake Valley, with -40.8m (-133.9 ft) depth, located on the east valley in the Province of Bocanegra, between the Sierra Central and the Sierra of South Cape (Serra do Cabo Sul).
Southern Cross Republic lies within the south temperate zone and is predominantly humid subtropical (Cfa, according to the Köppen climate classification). The climate is subtropical highland (Cfb) in the highest areas. There are four relatively well-marked seasons and rainfall is well distributed throughout the year, but occasional droughts can occur. The winter months, June to September, are characterized by heavy rains and by a cold southwesterly wind, which sometimes lower the temperature to below freezing, especially in the mountainous municipalities. The lowest registered temperature in the islands was −4°C (24.8°F) in Cruz Alta, Bocanegra, on August 1, 1955. In summer, the temperature not exceed the 32°C (89.6°F).
Subtropical plants dominate the archipelago, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian Rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba and prosopis nigra). Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of the island. In the island some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (fazendas). The only tree-like plant native is a variant of the evergreen ombú. The surface soils are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture.
Most of the highlands has shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to this conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys and coast. Coniferous forests in medium altitudes on the main island, include variants of alerce, ciprestes da cordilheira, ciprestes das guaitecas, hulilã, lheque, manho hembra and araucária, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coiê, lenga and nhiro. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copí and colí.
Government and Politics
Politics of the Southern Cross Republic takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic in which the President of the Southern Cross Republic is the head of government and head of state, in a multi-party system (de jure, two-party system de facto).
The national government is composed of three branches:
- Legislative: The unicameral General Council, makes national law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.
- Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to General Council approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce national laws and policies.
- Judicial: The National Justice Court and lower provincial courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with General Council approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
Southern Cross Republic adopted its first and current constitution in 1912, following the Portuguese revolution.
Law and Order
Main Article: Foreign Relations of the Southern Cross Republic
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for managing the foreign relations of the Southern Cross Republic. The Southern Cross Republic is a significant political and economic power in Latin America. Southern Cross Republic's foreign policy is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.
Main Article: Defensive Forces of the Southern Cross Republic
The Army is responsible for land-based military operations, and it is the oldest of the South Crossic armed forces. The Police is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution.
The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding territorial waters. It is the most important branch of the Defensive Forces with about 20 ships and 15 aircrafts. In case of a crisis situation the Navy must be ready to defend sea approaches, harbour areas, sea lines of communication and to co-operate with coalition units.
The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the armed forces, with about 38 manned aircrafts in service. The Air Force reduces the political, military, economical, social, environmental and psychological threats. The Air Force has important role in enhancing flight safety in South Crossic airspace.
Main Article: Provinces of the Southern Cross Republic
The Southern Cross Republic is divided into six Provinces (Províncias), and the capital, which are the administrative subdivisions of the country.
The provinces and the district are the biggest administrative subdivision. The province government (Governo da Província) of each province is led by a province governor (Governador(a)), who represents the national government at the regional level. Governors are elected by people for a term of four years, and only two consecutive mandates.
|Flags||Abbr.||Provinces||Capitals||Area (km²)||Population (inhabs.)
|RB||Rio Belo||Rio Belo||4,496.14||108,748||24.19|
|VO||West Valley||Porto Claro||5,374.75||54,592||10.16|
Each province is further divided into municipalities (municípios), which is also subdivided into parishes (freguesias). Each municipality is an unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in the Southern Cross Republic cover the entire territory of the country.
|GDP composition by sector (2010)|
Southern Cross Republic is the South America's most stable and prosperous nations, leading Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.
The South Crossic economy is an example of a mixed economy, a prosperous capitalist welfare state featuring a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors. The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector (Petróleo do Cruzeiro do Sul, PetroCS), hydroelectric energy production (Companhia Elétrica do Cruzeiro do Sul, CECS) and geothermal energy production (Geotérmica do Cruzeiro do Sul, GeoCS), mining sector (Mineração do Cruzeiro do Sul, MinaCS), and telecommunication provider (Telecomunicações do Cruzeiro do Sul, TeleCS). Through these big companies, the government controls approximately 30% of the stock values at the Santana Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Valores de Santana, BVS). When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil license ownership).
The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower and geothermal power, fish, forests, and minerals. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1980s, which led to a boom in the economy. Southern Cross Republic has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the Americas in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population. The South Crossic welfare state makes public health care free, and parents have 12 months paid parental leave. The income that the state receives from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production and the substantial and well-managed income related to this sector. Southern Cross Republic has a relatively low unemployment rate, currently around 5%. The hourly productivity levels, as well as average hourly wages in Southern Cross Republic are one the highest in the Latin America. However, it has a medium economic inequality, as measured by the Gini index.
In 2001 was established the Sovereign Fund of the Southern Cross Republic (Portuguese: Fundo Soberano do Cruzeiro do Sul, FSCS), a sovereign wealth fund to replace the National Oil Fund maintained by the central bank since 1986.
Main article: Tourism in the Southern Cross Republic
Components and Energy
Science and Technology
Main Article: Science and technology in the Southern Cross Republic
Technological research in the Southern Cross Republic is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies. SCR's most esteemed technological hubs are the XXX Institute, the XXX Institute and the South Crossic Space Agency has one of the most advanced space programs in Latin America.
Main Article: Transport in the Southern Cross Republic
Main Article: Health in the Southern Cross Republic
Main Article: Education in the Southern Cross Republic
The education system in Southern Cross Republic is very diverse, because the constitution delegates the authority for the school system to the provinces and municipalities. The South Crossic constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools and that the republic can run or support universities. Because of its diversity, there are many private international schools in Southern Cross Republic that encourage respect for all cultures. Diversification of the education system in 6 sub-systems is viewed by many as being inefficient. Consequently, it was voted on May 21, 1999 to reform the education system in one common program for all the provinces and municipalities.
Main Article: Communications in the Southern Cross Republic
Main Article: Demographics of the Southern Cross Republic
Left without inhabitants per millennia, the Southern Cross Island had its first inhabitants registered with the Portuguese colonization begun on July 26, 1579 with the foundation of Our Lady Santana's Villa, where about 40 Portuguese—26 men and 14 women—established their homes. Today, however, besides the Portuguese, there are descendants of Spanish (mainly Galicians), Italians (mainly Neapolitans), and Germans (mainly Swabians). The population of Southern Cross Republic totaled 1,008,187 on January 1, 2013. On January 1, 2014, the population was estimated to 1,011,413.
The official language of the Southern Cross Republic is the Portuguese. In spite of having been domain of Portugal for so much centuries there is a great influence of the Brazilian Portuguese and the Galician.
The most predominant religion in the Southern Cross Republic is Roman Catholicism. Approximately 68% of the population is nominally Catholic, and about 16% attend mass and take the sacraments regularly, while a larger number wish to be baptized, married in a church, and receive Last Rites.
Although Church and State were formally separated during the Proclamation of the Republic (1912), Roman Catholic precepts continue to have a relative weight in the South Crossic society and culture. Many South Crossic holidays, festivals, and traditions have a religious origin or connotation. The educational and health care systems were for a long time the Church's preserve, and in many cases, whenever a building, bridge, or highway was opened, it received a blessing from the Clergy.
The protestantism is about 10%, and the other religions are less than 1% in the SCR.
The group that more grows in Southern Cross Republic is it of non-religious; atheists, agnostics and secularists. They reach 22%, turning Southern Cross Republic the most secularized country of South America, followed by Uruguay (c. 17%).
Main article: List of largest cities in the Southern Cross Republic
Main Article: Culture of the Southern Cross Republic
The South Crossic culture has its roots in the Portuguese culture, which in turn has its roots in Celtic culture, Iberian, Roman and Germanic. The differentiation of the South Crossic culture manifests itself through the types of housing, the religious, gastronomy and folklore due to the mixture occurred over the centuries between the various waves of migration, mainly Galicians, Italians and Germans, and the great influence of the Brazilian culture.