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The traditional Surean calendar is a lunisolar calendar which, like the traditional calendars of other East Asian countries, was based on the Chinese calendar. Dates are calculated from Surea's meridian, and observances and festivals are based in Surean culture.

The Gregorian calendar was officially adopted in 1890, but traditional holidays and age-reckoning for older generations are still based on the old calendar. The biggest festival in Surea today is Seiritsu, the first day of the traditional Surean New Year.


The traditional calendar designated its years via Surean era names until 1890 when the official use of the lunar calendar ceased.

The Gregorian calendar was adopted by the new Surean Empire on 1 January 1890. Since then, Surean era names were used for its years until Japan annexed Surea in 1914. Then Japanese era names were used to count the years of the Gregorian calendar used in Surea until Japanese occupation ended in 1945.


  • The Chinese zodiac of 12 Earthly Branches (animals), which were used for counting hours and years;
  • Ten Heavenly Stems, which were combined with the 12 Earthly Branches to form a sixty-year cycle;
  • Twenty-four solar terms (節氣, gekki) in the year, spaced roughly 15 days apart;
  • Lunar months including leap months added every two or three years.


Modern names[]

The modern Surean names for the months literally translate to "first month", "second month", and so on. The corresponding number is combined with the suffix -ritsu (month):

  • January 一月 (mishiritsu)
  • February 二月 (jīritsu)
  • March 三月 (sanritsu)
  • April 四月 (shiritsu)
  • May 五月 (henritsu)
  • June 六月 (ryuritsu)
  • July 七月 (hajuritsu)
  • August 八月 (yonaritsu)
  • September 九月 (jūritsu)
  • October 十月 (sāritsu)
  • November 十一月 (sāmishiritsu)
  • December 十二月 (sājīritsu)

(Note that using Arabic numerals, as 3月, is extremely common in everyday communication, almost the norm.)

Traditional names[]

The twelve months are closely connected with agriculture, so they are alternatively named after plants:(Note: the old Japanese calendar was an adjusted lunar calendar based on the Chinese calendar, and the year—and with it the months—started anywhere from about 3 to 7 weeks later than the modern year, so it is not really appropriate to equate the first month with January.)

  • Primens (first month) 正月 (seiritsu): Latin "primus mensis".
  • Apricomens (apricot month) 杏月 (hanritsu): apricot blossoms.
  • Peacimens (peach month) 桃月 (yoyoritsu): peach blossoms.
  • Plumens (plum month) 梅月 (meiritsu): plum ripens.
  • Guavamens (guava month) 榴月 (ryūritsu): pomegranate blossoms.
  • Lotumens (lotus month) 荷月 (haritsu): lotus blossoms.
  • Orchimens (orchid month) 蘭月 (ranritsu): orchid blossoms.
  • Osmanthumens (osmanthus month) 桂月 (geiritsu): osmanthus blossoms.
  • Chrysanthemens (chrysanthemum month) 菊月 (Kinoritsu): chrysanthemum blossoms.
  • Benimens (good month) 良月 (yōritsu): good month.
  • Hiemens (hiemal month) 冬月 (zaneritsu): hiemal month.
  • Lamens (last month) 臘月 (heraritsu): last month.

Subdivisions of the month[]

Surea uses a seven-day week, aligned with the Western calendar. The seven day week, with names for the days corresponding directly to those used in Europe, was brought to Surea around 800 AD. The system was used for astrological purposes and little else until 1890, shortly after Surea officially adopted the Gregorian calendar. The names come from the five visible planets, which in turn are named after the five Chinese elements (wood, fire, earth, metal, water), and from the moon and sun (yin and yang).

  • Sunday 日周日 (madazori): Sun
  • Monday 月周日 (ritsuzori): Moon
  • Tuesday 火周日 (houzori): Fire (Mars)
  • Wednesday 水周日 (suizori): Water (Mercury)
  • Thursday 木周日 (mukkuzori): Wood/Tree (Jupiter)
  • Friday 金周日 (ginzori): Metal/Gold (Venus)
  • Saturday 土周日 (tsuzori): Earth (Saturn)

Days of the month[]

Each day of the month has a semi-systematic but irregularly formed name:

  1. 一日 (mikka)
  2. 二日 (jikka)
  3. 三日 (bikka)
  4. 四日 (shikka)
  5. 五日 (hekka)
  6. 六日 (ryukka)
  7. 七日 (hakka)
  8. 八日 (yokka)
  9. 九日 (jukka)
  10. 十日 (sakka)
  11. 十一日 (sāmikka)
  12. 十二日 (sājikka)
  13. 十三日 (sābikka)
  14. 十四日 (sāshikka)
  15. 十五日 (sāhekka)
  16. 十六日 (sāryukka)
  17. 十七日 (sāhakka)
  18. 十八日 (sāyokka)
  19. 十九日 (sājukka)
  20. 二十日 (jīsakka)
  21. 二十一日 (jīsāmikka)
  22. 二十二日 (jīsājikka)
  23. 二十三日 (jīsābikka)
  24. 二十四日 (jīsāshikka)
  25. 二十五日 (jīsāhekka)
  26. 二十六日 (jīsāryukka)
  27. 二十七日 (jīsāhakka)
  28. 二十八日 (jīsāyokka)
  29. 二十九日 (jīsājukka)
  30. 三十日 (sansakka)
  31. 三十一日 (sansāmikka)

(Note that using Arabic numerals, as 14日, is extremely common in everyday communication, almost the norm.)


The lunar calendar is used for the observation of traditional festivals, such as Seiritsu, Kimyō Festival, and Dongshi Festival. It is also used for gyōzu memorial services for ancestors and the marking of birthdays by older Sureans.

See also[]