The Surean people (朝本人, Juponrin) are the predominant ethnic group of Surea originating in East Asia. Worldwide, approximately 50 million people are of Surean descent; of these, approximately 44 million are residents of Surea. People of Surean ancestry who live in other countries are referred to as Jukeirin (朝系人). The term "Surean people" may also be used in some contexts to refer to a locus of ethnic groups including the Suchigo people (内江), Fusosaki people (高林), Kaneyō people (苗瑤) and the Shōsumo people (尚羅). Most Sureans speak the Surean language.


Origins

Sureans are believed to be descendants of Altaic- or proto-Altaic-speaking tribes, linking them with Mongolians, Tungusics, and Turks. Archaeological evidence suggests proto-Sureans were Altaic-language-speaking migrants from south-central Siberia, who populated ancient Surea in successive waves from the Neolithic age to the Bronze Age

A recent study has shown considerable genetic similarity between the Surean and several other Asian populations. The study, along with several others, claims that Y-chromosome patrilines crossed from the Asian mainland into the Surean Archipelago, where they continue to make up a large proportion of the Surean male lineage. These patrilines seem to have undergone extensive genetic admixture with the Shodai period populations previously established in Surea. In recent decades, it has been proposed that the Surean people are related to the Yi, Hani and Dai people. These proposals are based on folk customs as well as genetic evidence.

A second wave of immigrants from Southeast Asia is also believed to have migrated into northeastern Asia. Following a population expansion in Neolithic times, these newcomers then found their way to the Surean archipelago sometime during the Gobun period. As a result, miscegenation was rife in the South and Southwestern region of Honpura, but did not prevail in the outlying islands of Gisu and Natsupura. Here, the Kaneyō and Shōsumo people continued to dominate, as suggested by studies of human bone and teeth development and comparative analyses of mitochondrial DNA between Shodai people and medieval Fusosaki.

The study on the population change in the ancient period was also discussed. The estimated number of people in the late Shodai period numbered about ninety thousand, compared to that of the late Yuan Dynasty which had a population of about 1.6 million. Taking the growth rates of hunting and agricultural societies into account, it is calculated that about half a million immigrants moved to Surea in the period. This figure seems to be overestimated and is being recalculated.

Surean outside of the Surean archipelago

The term jukeirin (朝系人) is used to refer to Surean people who either emigrated from Surea or are descendants of a person who emigrated from Surea. The usage of this term excludes Surean citizens who are living abroad, but includes all descendants of jukeirin who lack Surean citizenship regardless of their place of birth.

Emigration from Surea was recorded as early as the 11th century to all parts of East Asia, but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Shū Dynasty, when Surean began to go to the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Brazil, Argentina and most Southeast Asian countries (namely Malaysia, then Malaya, and Singapore). During the Japanese colonial period of 1910-1945, Sureans were often recruited and or forced into labour service to work in mainland Japan, Karafuto Prefecture, and Manchukuo; the ones who chose to remain in Japan at the end of the war became known as Zainichi Sureans, while the roughly 20 thousand who were trapped in Karafuto after the Soviet invasion are typically referred to as Sakhalin Sureans.

According to the Association of Jukei and Surean Abroad, there are about 6 million jukeirin living in their adopted countries. Separately, the number of Surean citizens living abroad is over half a million according to the Department of Foreign Affairs.

Large Sureatowns can also be found in Australia, Brazil, United States, Malaysia and Canada. The largest Surean community outside of Surea is in Los Angeles, California. Sureans in the United Kingdom now form Western Europe's largest Surean community; Sureans in Portugal used to outnumber those in the UK until the late 1990s. There are also Sureatowns in Latin American countries such as Argentina, Guatemala, and Mexico. During the 1990s and 2000s, the numbers of Sureans in the Philippines and Sureans in Singapore have also grown significantly.


See also

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