|Ulach civil war|
|Ulach Free state||anti treaty UFA|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Tormod Mac Ruaraidh (KIA)
Ian Mac Ruaraidh
Cailean Mac Eachann
Sean Mac Uagh
|Paitric Mac Uagh
Ualian Mac Dhomhnal
Liam Mac Tabhis
|Ulach National Army
Ulach Air force
|Anti treaty UFA
The twin islands after Ulach war of indepedence were split between the sun island which remained a hold of the Mirkuleon Empire and the Moon island which became the Ulach free state, essentially an imperial dominion under the rule of a tempory junta goverment which would be led by a governor-general Tormod Mac Ruaraidh. The rest of the junta was made up of UFA commanders. Paitric Mac Uagh the UFA's founder and along with his brother main finacially backer refused to sign the treaty and so he left the UFA in 1938. The Ulach parliament was created soon after and Paitric became MP of Oghamba and founded along with other anti treaty UFA leaders and veterans the Ulach unity party.
1939 battle of Tionsach
The first election in the free state was held in 1938 it resulted in a coalition goverment between the Ulach unity party with a 40% majority of the vote and the Ulach remberance party with 25% of the vote. the junta goverment gave its powers to the newly formed coalition goverment led by Prime Minster Paitric Mac Uagh and deputy prime minster Cailean Mac Eachann. The population had a 32% literacy rate and lived in poverty due to the war of indepdence. anti treaty veterans whom felt betrayed by the pro treaty establishment were rallied up by Paitric into forming the Ulach anti treaty army. Paitric Mac Uagh declared the twin islands indepedent in 1939 breaking the treaty. Ex governor-general Tormod Mac Ruaraidh snuck into Tionsach with an army of seven hundred split into several battalions of a hundred men whom disguised themselves a truckers transporting food into the capital. Tormod and his pro treaty force of seven hundred then all snuck into the Parliament and fought the sixty Civil guards whom policied inside Parliament. The battle was won fairly quickly with all of the Ulach unity Mps and goverment minsters killed along with the sixty civil guards. Paitric Mac Uagh escaped and grouped up with the anti treaty UFA and attempted to retake Tionsach. the anti treaty forces in the city numbered around two thousand against seven hundred pro treaty soldiers whom occupied parliament and parliamentary square.Hazarahaz sent four hundred Mirkuleon Imperial marines to aid Tormod in the battle for Tionsach. The imperial marines managed to kill around one thousand of the anti treaty UFA along with around two hundred civilians in the cross fire. Paitric Mac Uagh fled from Tionsach with anti treaty UFA supporters. Tormod Mac Ruaraidh as governor organised armed death squads comprising of both regular free state troops to hunt down anti treaty UFA members.
1940 Army mutiny
The Ulach Free state army had not officially split between anti treaty and pro treaty factionalism rather it was the political wing of the UFA, the ulach freedom council which was affected most by the schism. The majority of soldiers in the UFA saw it as their patriotic duty not take sides as to them it was a purely political debate. Even after the battle of Tionsach the majority of the army saw the fighting as a political matter as the fighters were civil guardsmen and irregulars. However after the Table of Marshals, the UFA's military high command was purged of anti treaty sympathisers by Tormod on the orders of Hazarahaz many soldiers in the UFA began to openly display signs of rebellion against the free state. in exchange for the purge of anti treaty marshals, Hazarahaz gifted the Pro treaty UFA, uniforms and modern weapons in particular Automatic rifles for Tormod's own bodyguard as well as armoured jeeps and personal carries as well as light tanks for the pro treaty UFA in general. Around one thousand soldiers openly organised the strike against these new plans. Around five hundred of these striking soldiers whom were unarmed marched upon Tionsach in demonstration. the pro treaty UFA were ordered to prevent the march as the freedom council believed it was an armed uprising. Pro treaty UF soldiers opened fire killing around thirty protestors whilst the rest retreated. After that a large mutiny began across the free state of anti treaty soldiers banding together to kill pro treaty officers and soldiers which lasted for several weeks with the death of around fifteen thousand military personal on both sides. The free state led by Tormod Mac Ruaraidh declared war upon the anti treaty UFA and its leader Paitric Mac Uagh. Whilst Sean Mac Uagh campaigned for peace he was seen as a traitor by both sides however after he was almost killed in an assisination attempt by anti treaty irregulars, Sean joined the pro treaty force.
The bloodiest of fighting in the early year took place in 1941, this included the battle of Oghamba, the battle of Seiscachagha and the battle of Uailach which had death tolls in the thousands due to the indiscriminate bombings of civilian areas by both sides often through the usage of mortars and IEDs.The anti treaty offensive plan also began in mid 1941. the offensive was to isolate the Tionsach pro treaty goverment by capturing the surronding counties such as Maghinh as well capture the port of oghamba. The offensive was ultimately a failure as nearly a quarter of the twenty thousand strong anti treaty UFA were either killed or captured with its second in command Ualain Mac Dhomhnal was executed by crucifixition he was then paraded around the free state. However this had the effect of rallying more people to the anti treaty cause. Anti treaty Villages and farming towns with held their goods from pro treaty villages and towns especially Tionsach in a drive to starve out the Pro treaty upper and middle classes however Tormod ordered that the army consificate grain from anti treaty villages and take land from them whilst also expelling anti treaty sympathisers into the mountains of the far east of the islands. Which began the large scale banditry which lead to capture of around fourty thousand and two million rounds of ammunation as well as several light tanks and four river guns boats were captured and used to assult Tionsach whilst Tormod was there. the seige of Tionsach was a failure as the anti treaty forces were stopped by four of the new Ulach pro treaty ariel volunteers whom flew 1920s Eagle fighter MKII fighter planes donated by Hazarahaz however one of the planes crashed killing its pilot and twenty pro treaty fighters in the fire it caused. Tormod Mac Ruaraidh gave his Pro treaty speech afterwards which marked the start of reforms including more funding towards education and rebuilding roads and propety destroyed by the conflict.
1942 Guerrilla phase
With the major military defeats including the blockade of aid from Ulach diaspora sympathisers by the Ulach free state in the wars only naval battle when two ships carrying arms to be smuggled into the Moon island for the anti treaty UFA was prevented by the frigate in free state poession, UFN Tormod named after the governor general himself. UFN Tormod sunk one of the ships carrying the arms and its crew boarded the other ship and arrested its crew who were then shot and thrown overboard. Paitric Mac Uagh ordered the Anti treaty UFA to disperese into flying columens as their bases were destroyed by the Free state raiders, specially trained elite infantry units whom were conscripted from mainly hunters. Liam Mac Tabhis took over most of the anti treaty military commands whilst Paitric whom was sixty four at the time spent most of his time at his secret bunker in the eastern mountains. Tabhis ordered the Anti treaty UFA to focus upon individual warfare as free state spies were able to discover secret plans and offensives issued by Tabhis.The anti treaty UFA took control of the lakes which were the main source of transport as most roads were unpaved and dangerous. Raids on free state convoys carrying weapons came such a daily occurence that the free state had to drastically half the rations of their soldiers' food and ammunition some soldiers were not even equipped in uniforms or even with rifles and so many had to resort to use sporting rifles and shotguns which were donated by the gentry and game keepers. This weakening of the free state gave the anti treaty UFA the advantage as the eastern half of the country was controlled by anti treaty brigands, also in places such as Tionsach, Pro treaty politicians were under threat as around several were killed, four in the same car bomb and about five anti treaty politicians were also killed. Political figures on both sides were attacked at speeches or on demonstrations in the riots which took place that killed around fourty to eighty people on average.Hazarhaz gifted the free state around ten fighter planes and five bombers as well as ten more tanks. this began the free state bombings of known anti treaty areas, the anti treaty UFA resorted to using converted mine tunnels as a means of shelter and smuggling. An old silvermine located in Mount Adhaichar was the base of anti treaty military council. It was by accident that Tabhis whilst travelling through the tunnels turned the wrong way and ended up in Oghamba when he meant to go to Ualian. Tabhis was recongised from the wanted posters by two civil guardsmen however Tabhis also was accompanied by six of his guards. One of the civil guardsmen was killed whilst the other tipped off the local army garrison, around ten soldiers were sent into the tunnel to wait for Tabhis to return which he did. He was then taken prisoner although in the fighting prior to his capture he had been so badly wounded that he was in need of being carried. He was interrograted at the garrison so brutally that he lost his sight in his left eye and he began permantly deaf and his right arm was crippled to the point that he had a compound fracture which had to be amputated. However he survived this ordeal and was kept prisoner he also gave the information on Paitric's bunker. Tormod Mac Ruaraidh offered a return of parliamentary power and the Ulach democratic party was elected in 1942 under the leadership of Cailean Mac Eachann whom became Prime minster.
The first peace, the period of 1942 to 1946 was what was known as the first peace. The anti treaty forces dispersed and Paitric Mac Uagh was captured rather than be executed or placed in prison where he could influence fellow anti treatiers.He was placed under house arrest with permant stationing of two hundred soldiers in new Mac Uagh residence, Tanigha castle. Paitric Mac Uagh was placed under a silencing order. However Tormod was almost killed in a car bomb after Eachann's swearing into offence. Ian Mac Ruaraidh believed that the army which was still in the control of his brother should be used to take out Paitric. the ulach parliament took control of the army giving it command to Defence minster Lewis Mac Lioghall. Tormod kept a private force of one thousand soldiers whom were stationed at his home county of Maghinh for personal protection. Tormod left politics to focus upon his home life including communicating with his estranged son Seamus who was Provincial of the border region of the Kingdom of Salsia. During this time the Mirkuleon invasion of Donber, Durgia and Freeland which lasted during the same time as the peace. Ulachs living in Freeland and Donber were given amnesty this included the illegitimate son of Paitric Mac Uagh whom changed his Name to Ruaraidh Mac Paitric and he became an engineer and was placed in charge of Eachann's modernistion scheme and is credited as starting the first Ulach owned industry in the islands in the port towns of Oghamba, Tionsach and Seisachagha which produced arms and ships as well as as armoured cars and jeeps giving jobs and wealth to the islands which the goverment placed into education. the literacy rates for people aged eight to fourteen went to seventy percent whilst more over fourteens were able to stay in education due to goverment funds. The roughly two million Ulachs migrated from the central lands back to the free state as the mainland. The new migrants gave the nation a population boost however it caused tensions as many of these Ulachs were second to third generation whom had been brought up in the modern states of Freeland and Donber. These more educated migrants found it difficult to adapt to the lack of any white collar jobs and the prevelance of the agricultural sector which seventy percent of the population were involved in. The free state also began an area of tourism of people mainly from the twin sultanates to visit the usually isolationist islands. The Sultan of Charkam even made a state visit in the 1944 and his counterpart Sultan of Auchartkam visited a year later in 1945. Nearly all of the political leaders of the free state had connections to the mainland through buisnesses and friendships. The Mac Paitric brothers jointly owned around several factories in Freeland and Paitric was a long time MP of Tilesworth until he lost the seat in 1925, he was however still well respected in Tilesworth and many UFA sympthisers came from Tilesworth. In the 1946 national election the Ulach National Freedom party under the leadership of Ian Mac Ruaraidh who won around seventy percent of the vote. Ian's term would last around half a year as Emperor Kevousalar VIII whom was crowned in 1940 after the assisination of his father Kevousalar VII in 1939. Kevousalar VIII decreed that at every territory of the Empire must give at least some freemen and citezans to fight, this included Mirkuleon and non Mirkuleons. Ian intially believed that this would only mean Mirkuleons however it also meant humans. Ian knew that fighting would resume if he sent any number of national army personal to fight and perhaps even a military coup against him so Ian refused. Ian was forced to resign as Prime minster and he left the free state to live in New Donber along with his wife Deoridhi and their three year old son Tormod Mac Ian not to be confused with his uncle Tormod Mac Ruaradih whom.
1947-1948 Republican take over
The ulach Parliament was thrown into dissarray as it could not appoint a new Prime Minster and so Paitric led the Tionsach revolution of 47 when he and around two thousand anti treatiers marched on Tionsach and defeated the soldiers at the garrison and he took over the Parliament and declared the free state a republic. The republic supported the western empire against the eastern empire and so it became isolated due to it being in the eastern ocean. The Sun island fleet created a blockade to stop goods coming in from the twin sultanates. This caused a minor famine which killed around two hundred people mainly children and the elderly. Hazarhaz planned to remove the Republican goverment however Tormod, snuck into the Sun island to warn him not to. Tormod was given the command of five thousand Agomoton mercenaries to invade the Moon island. The Agomotons landed at the beach of Oghamba which were undefended as they were cut off from its port. From there Tormod led the Agomotons until they got to Banaffey a vallied area south of Tionsach. The Banaffey served as Tionsach's natural defence as when one got to it they would be met with a sheer drop and a lake which originated from the eastern mountains. The only way across was King Eosaph's bridge built in 1653. Tormod was met with a force of eight thousand Ulach republican soldiers, Tormod ordered around thirty of his soldiers to place explosives on the bridge. The bridge itself could allow up to two thousand people on it. Tormod ordered his soldiers to fix explosives to the bridge and he led one thousand of them across the bridge to be met with the eight thousand strong force led by Mac Eachann, the forces fought and Tormod feigned a false retreat back over the bridge. As Tormod and his men managed to get back to their side,they triggered the tnt on the bridge killing around two thousand of Eachann's men. Eachann ordered his soldiers to traverse down the valley. Tormod's full force then opened fire upon Eachann's forces killing three thousand of them. Eachann then surrended by taking his shirt of and waving it. Eachann met up with Tormod and swore loyalty to him as did his remaining soldiers. Tormod was joined in his seige of Tionsach with the Ulach national army led by Eachann roughly around thirty thousand Ulach national army soldiers took on the Ulach civil guard and Republican paramilitaries whom numbered 26,000. Tormod won seige and took over Tionsach and was reinstated by as Governor-General. Tormod spent his time in office hunting down anti treaty activists and other republicans through the usage of death squads who would perfom extrajudicial killings targeting in particular journalists and activists who opposed him.Tormod even set up his own secret police the Stait Garda which would moniter communications across the island.Tormod effectively had killed four thousand anti treaty activists and effectively destroyed the movement. However Paitric Mac Uagh managed to escape to Tyddach New Donber where Ian Mac Ruaraidh was. Tormod was killed along with his chauffur Bhaltair Mac Eoisn and ten of his personal guard and Mac Eachann's daughter Margret Nic Cailean in Tormod's home county of Maghinh.
1948-1952 Paitric's return to power
Paitric Mac Uagh whilst living in exile returned to the free state and became President again. Paitric Mac Uagh however did not have support from the Ulach National Army which due to Tormod was mainly free stater. Paitric found his rule difficult to implement and he only had control of part of the island as the majority of his supporters had switched sides or they had been killed off during Tormod's reign. Paitric attempted to win over both the newly created industrial working class through price fixing, introducing a minimum, making it harder for bosses to fire workers. He also used to farmers and the rural population whom were still the majority at the time and whom were very conservative and so Paitric's republicanism as a foreign concept. to win them over Paitric made sure to give power to Ulach Lords he also made sure that Ulach would be the sole official language of the Ulach Republic. Road signs and buildings had their Mirkuleon and northmen names removed. Paitric's second time found it difficult to enforce anything as the army did not trust him and so he was forced to replace the commanding officers with those loyal to him with very little exprience. Paitric also recalled all of the Ulach soldiers fighting in the Imperial auxillary army and he made it illegal for Ulachs to fight in the third Mirkuleon civil war. Paitric also gave political support for the western empire despite the free state being geographicaly and politicaly part of the eastern empire. This led to the Moon island to become isolated from trade, food produced in the much larger twin sultantes along with the various spices and other luxury goods could not enter the Moon island which caused various violent riots which plunged the Moon island into anarchy. Paitric's grip on power became even looser after the peasant war of 1952 where in which an army of sixteen thousand peasants fought against Paitric's soldiers in mainly the Maghinh county and the central regions of the Moon island. The Ulach national army at the time numbered thirty thousand however only roughly four thousand were under the control of Paitirc, the other ten thousand still being the westerlands fighting against the Western empire and the remaining one thousnad were part of the rebel peasant army. This rebel peasant army was under the command of Douglas Mac Imhair who proved himself an effective commander. The peasant army did not have the same military training and most of its fire arms were old hunting rifles and shotguns however they managed to capture the garrison town of Galangail were in which they were able to get their hands on light mobile artillery. The war ended with the march on Tionsach were in which Tionsach defended by roughly two thousand was beseiged by the peasant army of eight thousand. The peasants were victorius and Mac Imhair became President in 1952 and Paitric Mac Uagh fled to the countryside. He lived on the run, often he would hand out anti treaty propaganda and he would hold secret talks with those who supported him. Douglas was against the treaty and supported republicanism and thus he angered Pro treatiers and the Mirkuleon Empire whilst he also did not bother to withdraw Ulach soldiers from the Second Great War which angered Republicans and Anti treatiers. Douglas was however prior to the civil war was a close childhood friend of Tormod Mac Ruaraidh's fiance Marget Nic Cailean. Douglas set up an investigation into Tormod's death he ordered that Ian Mac Ruaraidh and Paitric Mac Uagh along with Sean Mac Uagh as well as others would be put on trial for the killing of Tormod. Paitirc managed to escape to Brokenhold (Freeland), Sean was found innocent whilst Ian was still living in New Donber. Ian was kidnapped and brought back to the Moon island. He was found innocent and Hazarhaz the cheiftain of the Sun island invaded the Moon island and placed Ian Mac Ruaraidh as Prime Minster.
The end years of the war was known as the years of blood. Ian's first act as prime minster was to systematically crush the republican movement by the raising of his own secret police agency which carried out extra judicial killings of those who opposed the treaty. this also extended to destroying all propaganda and litetrature produced by anti treatiers along the destruction of their printing presses. Roughly twelve thousand people were killed during this period and many more were exiled to the unknown lands whilst others fled to the Sun island. The Ulach National army itself was reformed and purged of all anti treatiers and its paramilitary branches were disbanded. Mac Imhair's army however remained active and it recruited miners and dock workers to its own cause however Mac Imhair's army joined withe Ulach national army in 1960. From 1960 onwards the war was more or less just a series of small scale skrimishes and gurilla attacks, were in which casualities ranged from five to seventy. Due to the support of the eastern empire during the second great war of the free staters, the Ulach free state was granted the right to full indepedence in 1963. This effectively ended the anti treatier movement and Ian Mac Ruaraidh offered a referndum wheher or not the free state would remain a free state, or become a kingdom or become a republic. The majority of people (60% roughly) voted to have a kingdom whilst 35% voted for being a free state and 5% voted to become a republic. Ian Mac Ruaraidh was voted by the Ulach parliament to become King of the Ulachs.
The war was cast by the Ulach Free State as a conflict between legitimate law and order against anarchy and barbarity whilst the Republicans viewed the conflict as one between freedom against a tyranny. The Anti Treaty Republicans were much more deeply ideaologically than their Free State opponents whom in turn were more traditional and more driven by tribal loyalties.
The 1940 Mutiny divided the Ulach Freedom Army roughly by 40:60 in favour of the Free state. This was mainly because the Ulach Free State introduced UFA pensions and salaries to its members. The salary of soldiers was 2.5 Ualacers whilst junior officers and NCOs had a salary of 4.5 Ualacers whilst senior officers (majors and up) earned 10 Ualacers. Mass unemployment and poverty was common in the Free State and thus the Ulach Army offered one of the main options for stable employment for able bodied young men. However many Ulach soldiers were disillusioned by the Ulach Free State with many viewing it as collaborationists and traitors to the original cause of Ulach indepedence
Both sides throughout the war were swelled by a large amount of volunteers many of which formed their own units largerly independent from the command of either side. The volunteer units were referred to as a militias many of which operated no diffently to common street gangs funding themsleves through crime. The amount of volunteers during the war meant that during its highest points of intensity roughly eighty percent of men aged between 14 and fifty were in active combat leaving the economy in ruins due to a lack of workers resulting in both sides being severly under equipped.
Ulach Free State
The pro treaty forces officially the Ulach National Army (UNA) after 1940 numbered originally at around 33,350 following the Army Mutiny. However this number was further bolstered by roughly 15,000 irregular troops whom volunteered mainly due to tribal loyalties rather than political ones. The UNA was weakened by its lack of any real political unity during the start of the war with its members being mostly considered with not wanting another war against the Mirkuleons. However later on in the war a reactionary style element increased in the UNA with many of its members supporting a return to the pre 1910 structure of a loose confederation of various fiefdoms and demesnes as opposed to a modern nation state. However others in the UNA supported a more nationalisitic and centralised state. Tormod Mac Ruaraidh appeased both these factions by highlighting his noble heritage and restoring the titles abolished by the Mirkuleons as well as showing himself as the all powerful leader of the Ulach people.
The UNA was far better equipped than its opponents due to it being given modern weaponary as well as its personal being given training in the usage of it. This enabled the UNA's Air Corps to dominate the sky giving it a serious advantage throughout the war. To counter this the rebels used a system of tunnels to avoid the bombing runs by the UNA.
The rebel forces had their origins in the 1940 army mutiny with various UFA units splintering from the Free State controlled UFA. However opposition to the Treaty of 1938 existed prior to the mutiny with various UFA officers publically stating their anti treaty sentiments. During the Paitric Mac Uagh's premiership following the election of the first Ulach Parliament UFA units loyal to him and the Ulach Civil Guard could be seen as the precursors to the Anti-Treaty forces.
The rebel forces went throughout the war with different levels of centralisation which ranged from being a standing army to various rebel groups which would often fight each other. Many of those who fight with the rebels had a mistrust of the idea of a standing army due to the abuse many suffered at the hands of the Twin Islands Legion during the war of independence. This disadvantaged the rebel forces due to their being real large scale cooperation between them whilst also making it harder for the Ulach Free State forces' inflitration strategies.
Like the forces of the Ulach Free State the majority of rebels joined the opposition due to tribal loyalties rather than political ones with deciding factor on whether or not a particular village or area's allegiance being based on what ever the majority of the most powerful people there supported. However much later on into the war many diaspora Ulachs who had returned to the Twin Islands increased political thinking amongst the rebel forces forming units based upon ideology. The ideologies of these groups ranged from Pan Humanist nationalists who sought to create an Authoritarian and militarist state, to liberal democrats whom wished to create something similar to Freeland's goverment and supported moderate nationalism alongside modernisation to far left communists as well as anarcho-communits who viewed Ulach history as a part of global class struggle.
Foreign involvement during the war was mainly limited to the Agomoton and Mirkuleon Empires due to the geographic location of the Twin Islands. However the Ulach diaspora which remained in places such as Donber and Freeland as well as further west also played a part in the war through donating to both sides and going to Twin Islands to part take in the conflict.
Support for the Ulach Free State
The Ulach Free State gained its autonomy from the Mirkuleon Empire following the conclusion of the Ulach War of Independence. The Twin Islands partition created to two new entities within the Mirkuleon Empire; the Sun Island Hold and the Ulach Free State. These two entities operated a policy of isolation from each other due to the events of the War of Independence however both were still under the control of the Empire. The Ulach Free State relied upon the Mirkuleon Empire for finacial and military support which it gained through "I owe you" bills.
The civil war was host to a large amount of atrocities on both sides, as combatants would often use terror tactics against civilians as forms of punishment or retribution for supporting the opposing side. Neither side were signatory to the treaty of the Great war and thus did not take up the regulations on war. This resulted in civilians and POWS being mistreated, often POWS were simply executed after they had surrendered. Criminality was rife on both sides as well as civilians who were placed under false arrest were then sold as slaves or held to ransom. Massacres and mass rapes of towns occured on a regular basis.
Pro treaty war crimes
Between the years 1939 to 1942 Pro treaty forces commited five major war crimes on both civilians and POWs killing around fourty five thousand, these include the wide spread usage of poison gas against villages which were accused of habouring anti treaty gurrillas. This was mainly nerve and mustard gas, this killed roughly two and half thousand civilians and anti treaty soldiers. It was also used in combat on gurrillas through the usage of artillery which was used to bombard the rebels with poison gas. When it came to POWS the Pro treaty forces could not afford to feed anti treaty prisoners and so POWs would often starve or they would be executed to save food. Torture and kidnapping of POWs and those suspected of supporting the rebels was common practise by the pro treaty forces.Pro-treaty motorized units would often travel the country killing those in villages which were rumored to be aiding the rebels. During the more stable years from 1942 to 1946 widescale free state repression was less harsh due to the lower levels of violence however the Free State still used the Civil Guard as a Secret Police force to spy on its citizens whilst also assasinating those involved in anti-goverment activities. From the years 1947 up until 1948 Tormod Mac Ruaraidh's return to power so resurgence of violence by the Anti-treaty groups and a further increase of state repression and terror as Tormod made widescale usage of death squads of wipe out entire villages which opposed the Free StateAfter 1948 up until 1952 the pro-treaty forces lost power to the Republicans and thus were targeted by the new Republican goverment which ordered large scale revenge killings against suspected Free-Staters.